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# MISTY

The block cipher MISTY, developed by Mitsuru Matsui for the
Mitsubishi Corporation, was the first cipher to demonstrate
a novel method of obtaining a level of provable security against
both differential and linear cryptanalysis. A
paper
explaining these basic principles in the context of the closely
related block cipher KASUMI is available on the web.

The description of MISTY given here refers to MISTY1 as described
in RFC2994. MISTY is patented, but is available from Mitsubishi
for noncommercial use
and, with licensing, for commercial use on generous terms.

The following diagram illustrates the first two Feistel rounds within
MISTY:

The key material used in MISTY consists of sixteen 16-bit subkeys.
They are divided into two groups of eight, designated K0 through K7 and
K8 through K15. From one f-function to the next, corresponding subkeys
are replaced by the next subkey in sequence within their group of eight
subkeys.

Note that prior to the first two Feistel rounds, the two halves of the
block are independently subjected to what is a linear operation, but
under the nonlinear control of two subkeys. This operation is repeated
after each pair of Feistel rounds, and again, corresponding subkeys are
replaced by the next subkey in sequence within their group of eight
subkeys. Thus, in this operation, one moves through the subkeys at half
the speed as one does within the f-functions.

MISTY uses eight Feistel rounds, and after the last pair of Feistel
rounds, this novel nonlinearly keyed linear operation is again applied to
the halves of the block.

### The Key Schedule

The first eight subkeys in MISTY are obtained by dividing the 128-bit
key into eight 16-bit parts. The second group of eight subkeys is obtained
by putting the first group of eight subkeys through the basic operation
used within the MISTY f-function (which is termed FI):
K0 encrypted with K1 yields K8, K1
encrypted with K2 yields K9, and so on, up to K8 encrypted with K0
yielding K15.

This is illustrated by the diagram below:

Note that keys consisting of eight identical 16-bit subblocks may be
considered weak; but, of course, any keys belonging to a known small
family would be weak against a brute-force search in any case.

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